Chondroitin Sulfate is an important component of most of the tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates and is mainly present in those that have a large extracellular matrix, like those that form the body's connective tissue: cartilage, skin, blood vessels, and also ligaments and tendons.>
Chondroitin Sulfate is a muco-polysaccaride (glucosaminoglycan) with a high viscosity and is composed of alternate disaccharide sequences of differently sulfated residues of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) linked by) bonds.
The most frequently found muco-polysaccarides in the body are Chondroitin-4-Sulfate and Chondrotin-6-Sulfate. They are present in both bones and connective tissues.
Ac = acetyl, R = SO3- or H
The level of aggregation and the high loads of the sulfate groups of chondroitin sulfate gives these proteoglycans high water-retention properties, which gives cartilage its high compression resistance characteristic.
Different kind of CS sulfation may be present in the CS backbone in various percentages in relation to specific animal source.
Animal Chondroitin Sulfate: highly heterogeneous
The chemical composition (sulfation, nature of proteoglycans) and quality of CS changes with age of the animal, tissue, organ and that it is specific for each species)
Chondroitin Sulfate has main biological roles and is a key macromolecule present at cellular and extracellular level, forming extracellular matrix of all organs and tissues, in particular largely represented in cartilages and bones.
The effect of chondroitin sulfate in patients suffering from a variety of degenerative joint conditions (like osteoarthritis) that may benefit from an effective nutritional supplement that supports strong and healthy joints.